CHAPTER TWENTY-SIX

P. 314  WAR HISTORY (1861-1898)

POLITICS IN SOUTHERN ILLINOIS—

PRESIDENTIAL VOTE (1860) IN LOGAN’S DISTRICT—

STATE CONVENTIONS AND ASSEMBLIES—KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN CIRCLE—

THE “AMERICAN BASTILLE”—SOUTHERN ILLINOIS IN CAMP AND BATTLE—

THREE YEARS  SERVICE—ONE HUNDRED DAYS  SERVICE—THE ALTON BATTALION—

ONE YEAR SERVICE—CAVALRY SERVICE—SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR—

THE FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY—EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY—

NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY

       The election in November 1860 resulted in the choice of Richard Yates, Republican candidate for governor over James C. Allen, The Democratic candidate, by a vote of 172,196 to 159,253. Of the nine congressmen, those from the first, second, third and fourth districts were Republican while the other five were Democrats. In the seventh district James C. Robinson, Democrat, of Marshall, defeated James T. Cunningham, Republican; Philip B. Fouke, Democrat, of Belleville, defeated Joseph Gillispie, Republican; John A. Logan, Democrat, of Benton, defeated David T. Linegar, Republican. In this ninth district Logan received 20,863 votes while Linegar received 5,207. There were 165 votes scattering. This would make a total vote on congressman of 26,229 while the total vote for the four candidates for president as shown below was 28,172, showing 1,943 voters failed to vote for congressman.

PRESIDENTIAL VOTE (1860) IN LOGAN’S DISTRICT

The following vote by counties, in Logan’s  district, November 6, 1860, will be of interest:

Ninth Cong. Dist.
  Lincoln Douglas Bell Breckinridge
Alexander   106 684 178 79
Edwards 580 370 16 228
Franklin 1391 75 5  
Gallatin 221 1020 88 13
Hamilton   102 1553 99  
Hardin 107  499 62  
Jackson 315 1556 147 29
Johnson 040 1563   9
Massac 121 873 84  
Perry 649 1101 138 1
Pope  127 1202  83  1
Pulaski 220 550 45  40
Saline 100 1338 113 15

P 315

Ninth Cong. Dist. 

  Lincoln Douglas  Bell Breckinridge
Union 157 996 58 819
Wabash 597 710 22 1
Wayne 620 1645 48 5
Williamson 173 1835 166 40
White 756 1544 38 5
  5,219  20,430 1,461 1,062

The votes shown above indicate clearly that Southern Illinois was strongly Democratic in the fall of 1860. John A. Logan who was elected in November, 1860, had served one term in congress. He was deservedly popular throughout all Southern Illinois. He stood by Douglas in and out of congress. In the short session of the congress commencing December 1860, Logan was a prominent figure. He heartily supported the Grittenden Compromise and every way in his power attempted to prevent secession. In the house on February 5, 1861, Mr. Logan said: “I will go as far as any man in the performance of a constitutional duty, to put down rebellion, to suppress insurrection and to enforce the laws;

       Sir, I have always denied, and do yet deny, the right of secession. There is no warrant for it in the constitution. It is wrong, it is unlawful, unconstitutional, and should be called by the right name, Revolution.

       . . . . . . I would, today, if I had the power, sink my own party, and every other one, with all their platforms, into the vortex of ruin, without heaving a sigh or shedding a tear, to save the Union, or even stop the Rebellion where it is.

       The session ended past midnight of the 3d of March, 1861, with no settlement in sight. Lincoln was inaugurated the next day. Shortly the public men scattered to their homes. The secession movement grew. Fort Sumter was reduced and on April 15th Lincoln called for 75,000 troops and asked congress to assemble in special session July 4th. Illinois was all military activity. The regiment known afterwards as the Twenty-first was in camp at Springfield and was soon to be mustered in as United States troops, having at first been mustered in as state troops for thirty days. General Grant in his Memoirs says that two congressmen, Logan and McClernand came to Springfield about the middle of June and addressed his regiment. Grant says he had heard much of Logan but had not known him personally. “His district had been settled originally by people from the southern states, and at the outbreak of secession they sympathized with the south. . . . Some of them joined the southern army; many were preparing to do so; others rode over the country at night denouncing the Union, and made it as necessary to guard railroad bridges over which national troops had to pass in Southern Illinois at it was in Kentucky. . . . Logan’s popularity was unbounded. I had some doubt as to the effect a speech from Logan might have, but as he was with McClernand whose sentiments on the all absorbing questions of the day were well known I gave my consent. McClernand spoke first; Logan followed in a speech which he has hardly equaled since, for force and eloquence. It breathed a loyalty and devotion to the union which inspired my men to such a point that they would have volunteered to remain in the army as long as an enemy of the country continued to bear arms against it. P 316 LOGAN IN CONGRESS AND THE FIELD

       Logan attended the special session of congress, and fought in the battle of Manassas Junction on July 21, 1861. Gen. Anson G. McCook in describing the battle of Bull Run said two men were in citizen s clothes. One was his uncle Daniel McCook, and the other was John A. Logan. Logan had a gun and when not assisting the wounded was firing. He said Logan wore a silk hat. After the battle Logan returned to the capital and telegraphed to John H. White, later lieutenant colonel of the Thirty-first regiment, to proceed immediately to raise troops.

       Logan returned from the special session about the 15th of August. His wife drove from Marion to meet him at Carbondale, the nearest

GENERAL JOHN A. LOGAN

railroad station. On his arrival in Marion great crowds of former friends were gathered. They were angry, desperate. They sympathized with the secessionists. Logan spoke from a wagon and soon converted the mob to friends for the Union. He headed a drum and fife procession and enough men came forward to make Company C of the Twenty-first regiment. From this time forward the tide turned greatly for the Union. However, not all the people of Southern Illinois were enlisted on the side of the Union as we shall show.

STATE CONVENTIONS AND ASSEMBLIES

       In January, 1861, a Democratic state convention met at Springfield to give expression to the desire of the people for peace. Zadock Casey of Mt. Vernon presided. Mr. Casey was lieutenant governor in the stormy nullification days and presided over the senate when Jackson's policy of coercion was heartly endorsed—  ‘That disunion by armed force is treason, and should be treated as such by the constituted authorities of the nation.” Now Mr. Casey‘s convention believed: P 317

       “That the perilous condition of the country had been produced by the agitation of the slavery question, creating discord and enmity between the different sections, which had been aggravated by the election of a sectional President.”

       The Republicans carried both branches of the legislature in the election of 1860. But in the election of 1862 the Democrats carried both branches of the general assembly. From Southern Illinois the senators were—William H. Green, Massac county; Hugh Greeg, Williamson; I. Blanchard, Jackson; J. M. Rogers, Clinton; W. H. Underwood, St. Clair; S. Moffat, Effingham. The representatives from Southern Illinois were—James H. Smith, Union; T. B. Hicks, Massac; James B. Turner, Gallatin; James W. Sharp, Wabash; H. M. Williams, Jefferson; J. M. Washburn, Williamson; Jesse R. Ford, Clinton; S. W. Miles, Monroe; E. Menard, Randolph; J. W. Merritt, Marion; James M. Heard, Wayne; D. W. Odell, Crawford; J. W. Wescott, Clay; R. H. McCann, Fayette; C. L. Conger, White; J. B. Underwood, St. Clair; J. B. Thomas, St. Clair; S. A. Buckmaster, Madison; William Watkins, Bond; P. Dougherty Clark.

       The sittings of this general assembly were stormy indeed. The Democrats presented a set of whereases in which they affirmed that “The allegiance of citizens is due alone to the constitution and laws made in pursuance thereof—not to any man, or officer, or administration—and whatever support is due to any officer of this government, is due alone by virtue of the constitution and laws.” Another resolution read as follows: “Resolved, That we believe the further prosecution of the present war can not result in the restoration of the Union and the preservation of the constitution, as our fathers made it, unless the President's Emancipation Proclamation be withdrawn.” The Republican minority resolved that—’ ‘it is the duty of all good citizens cordially to support the national and state administrations, and that we hereby offer to the administration of Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, and Richard Yates, governor of the state of Illinois, our earnest and cordial support in the efforts of their respective administrations to put down the present most infamous rebellion.” The two houses quarreled about the date of adjournment and the governor prorogued the legislature.

KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN CIRCLE

       The Ohio river from a few miles below Pittsburg to Cairo was the dividing line between freedom on the north and west and slavery on the south and east. West Virginia (then a part of “Old Virginia”) and Kentucky were slave states and Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois were free states. All three of these free states had been settled in an early day largely from slave states. Southern Illinois was almost wholly settled, up to the Civil war, from the older slave states. And while some of these people moved out of the slave states to get away from slavery very many sympathized with the southern people. It was not to be expected therefore to find the south half of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois enthusiastic for the prosecution of the war. It was easy for the secessionists to come out of the states of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia and find in Southern Illinois enthusiastic sympathizers.

       The first two years of the war were not successfully prosecuted. P 318

       Beyond the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, and the victory of Pittsburg Landing, the government had no substantial fruit as the result of the war. This accounts for Illinois going Democratic in the fall of 1862. The issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation alienated from the support of the government many good citizens and influential leaders. Now while these good citizens could not openly oppose the prosecution of the war, they desired in some way to exert an influence looking toward the cessation of hostilities and the restoration of “peace at any price.” To meet the need of organized effort there was brought forward semi-military secret societies that assumed a number of names. The first organization was known as the Circle of Honor. Later the name changed to Knights of the Golden Circle, and still later to the Order of American Knights, and finally to the Order of Sons of Liberty.

       It was the Knights of the Golden Circle mainly which was organized in Southern Illinois, and later the order was known as the Sons of Liberty. Quite a little of the information furnished the government relative to this organization was obtained by Felix G. Stidger, a United States government secret service agent, who was in 1864 grand secretary of the order of Sons of Liberty in the state of Kentucky. Mr. Stidger made a full report to the secret service department of the government and it is incorporated in the report of Judge Advocate General J. Holt, to the department of war on October 8, 1864. In addition to this government report Mr. Stidger, in 1903, after the passions of the war had subsided, wrote a full and complete history of his connection with the order. The organization was as follows: (1) A supreme council, whose officers were supreme commander, secretary of state, and a treasurer. (2) A grand council, whose officers were a grand commander, deputy grand commander, grand secretary, and grand treasurer. (3) County parent temples: the officers were commander, secretary, and treasurer. There was a military, department in connection with the organization. The supreme commander was commander in chief; grand commanders were commanders of the forces of their  respective states. There were four major generals for a state, and each congressional district was under a brigadier general. The county was under a colonel, and the forces of a township were under a captain. The writer remembers very distinctly as a school boy, being in the home of a schoolmate when an older brother of the schoolmate arrived from Alton with a one-horse buggy full of revolvers. They were encased in black leather with belt attached. It was a great privilege of the two boys to take the revolvers from the buggy and assist in carrying them into the house. He remembers also that one of the “Knights” was later captured by soldiers and lodged in a prison at Springfield along with five other brothers. Here the “Knight” died and the body was returned to the home for burial. We all went to the funeral and as we trudged along the side of the procession, the “Knights” to the number of thirty or more rode with military order behind the hearse, their revolvers in their black leather cases buckled to their waists.

       It is now half a century since those troublous times, and it is with difficulty that one can get first hand information concerning the organization known as the Knights of the Golden Circle. Personal correspondence with responsible people in the several counties has revealed the fact that the order was in a flourishing condition in most of the counties in southern Illinois. We append a few of these replies, omitting names. P 319

       Saline county: “The order existed here during the Civil war. Members were not numerous, and while threats of violence were made against strong union men, they lacked the leadership and courage to put their threats into execution. These Knights went to the home of a Mr. Jobe, a discharged soldier, to order him to leave the country. He was sick in bed, but calling for his gun he told them to come into his house at their peril. At this day most of the members of this order are either dead or ashamed they ever belonged to it. In either ease one can not get personal information. Judge Duff, who was arrested in Marion in the fall of 1862, was held as a prisoner in Washington for three months. In March, 1863, while holding court in Harrisburg he delivered a great tirade on “Arbitrary Arrest by the Federal Government.” That was “Black Monday” for loyal union men of Saline county. The Union League was organized in Saline county in several places, and its influence had a salutary effect upon Copperheadism.”

       Cumberland county: “The Knights of the Golden Circle was organized in this county, but it is difficult to get reliable information.”

       Richland county: “Those who sympathized with the south were mustering in different sections of the county, and even made an attempt to raid the provost-marshal’s office in Olney, to get the draft papers. Colonel O‘Kane, who was provost-marshal, wired Governor Dick Yates, and a company of soldiers were sent to protect the office and restore order generally.”

       Crawford county: “While teaching at ‘Big Brick’ (District No. 58), some years ago, I was told that the forty acres on which the school house is located, a beautiful level piece of land, was used as a drill ground by the Knights of the Golden Circle during the war. There were those who watched them from a distance on moonlight nights.”

       Monroe county: “Yes, there were Knights of the Golden Circle in this county, but I know nothing about them except they were rebels at heart and secret enemies of the flag.

       Pope county: “I did not know of any in this county. I knew of Golden Circles in Kentucky. Its purpose was to oppose the Union.

       Members of this order abused union men who would not join them. Families of unionists who went to war were ill treated by this order.”

       Wabash county: “Yes, the Knights of the Golden Circle was organized in this county. There was lots of them. The purpose of them was to preserve the peace in their vicinity, and protect their homes, let the invasion come from any source or place. They did not want to go to the war unless drafted, and then they had secret signs that might save them from death, if they were taken prisoners in the war. It was not of much use here, as we had no trouble in our county. I probably know something about it, for I organized about two hundred of them in our county (he probably means 200 members), and Lawrence county. We never did any harm to anybody, and when the war was over, the organization died a natural death.”

       Perry county: “Yes, the Golden Circle was organized in Perry county. Some of the members lived in Tamaroa.”

       Richland county: “No. Richland county was loyal to the union. However, lust across in Edwards to the south, and in Jasper at the north, they had this order. Its object was to discourage enlistments, aid and abetting the south. The Union League was for exactly the opposite purpose. There was never a draft on Richland. She was P  320 always ahead on her quota. Company E, Eleventh Missouri Volunteer Infantry was the result of the worked-off surplus from this county. Just across in Edwards county the enlistments were few, as they were descendants of southern families, and were in sympathy with their cause. A draft was run on this precinct (in Edwards county) and as the office of Provost-Marshal O‘Kane was in Olney and as he held the list of names drawn, it was the plan of the Knights to move upon Olney, seize the list, and burn it, destroying Olney if necessary to· accomplish their plans. The Jasper Knights were to march from the north and assist. Perhaps, sometime late in the fall of ‘64, they astonished the citizens of the county by riding in squads bearing arms, and near 0lney they had assembled. The Union Leaguers occupied the town and the unarmed citizens were supplied from the hardware stores as the report had gone out that the city was to be burned. When all was in readiness, the sheriff went out to the Knights and commanded them to disband and to return to their respective homes or he would be compelled to scatter them by force of arms. Sentinels and pickets were stationed and no one could enter Olney that night without the password. The Knights began to disperse and long before morning were gone. This is the nearest we came of having trouble during the existence of the Knights of the Golden Circle.”

       Effingham county: “There were no Knights of the Golden Circle in this county, but in our neighboring county of Marion a certain prominent judge was said to be high priest in that order.”

       Williamson county: Perhaps the local history of no county relative to the political situation in 1861-5 has been more carefully preserved than it has in Williamson county. The facts recorded below are taken from a small history of Williamson county written by Hon. Milo Erwin in 1876 when every fact enumerated could be easily substantiated. Mr. Erwin says John A. Logan sympathized with the south, but early openly declared for the Union. Secession was openly talked up to the firing on Fort Sumter. In Marion, just following the firing on Fort Sumter, a dozen or more men congregated in a saloon and while there called a meeting for the purpose of considering an ordinance of secession. The meeting was held in the courthouse April 15, 1861, with the avowed purpose of providing for the “public safety.” James Manier was president. G. W. Goddard, James M. Washburn, Henry C. Hooper, John M. Cunningham (father-in-law of John A. Logan), and Wm. R. Scurlock constituted a committee who drafted the following resolutions which were adopted:

       “Resolved, That we, the citizens of Williamson county, firmly believing, from the distracted condition of our country—the same being brought about by the elevation to power of a strictly sectional party, the coercive policy of which toward the seceded states will drive all the border slave states from the Federal Union, and cause them to gain the Southern Confederacy.

       “Resolved, That, in that event, the interests of the citizens of southern Illinois imperatively demands at their hands a division of the state. We hereby pledge ourselves to use all means in our power to effect the same, and attach ourselves to the Southern Confederacy.

       “Resolved, That, in our opinion, it is the duty of the present administration to withdraw all the troops of the Federal government that may be stationed in southern forts, and acknowledge the P 321 independence of the Southern Confederacy, believing that such a course would be calculated to restore peace and harmony to our distracted country.

       Resolved, That in view of the fact that it is probable that the present governor of the state of Illinois will call upon citizens of the same to take up arms for the purpose of subjugating the people of the south, we hereby enter our protest against such a course, and, as loyal citizens, will refuse, frown down, and forever oppose the same.”

       By the morning of the 16th, General Prentiss at Cairo knew of these treasonable resolutions. J. M. Campbell of Carbondale went to Marion on the 16th and persuaded the people to revoke the resolutions. Judge W. J. Allen was instrumental in getting the resolutions repealed. Mr. A. T. Benson carried the action of the repealing convention to General Prentiss. The resolutions were not revoked by the same men who passed them, and so the original convention men held another meeting on the 27th of April, moved to “seize the money in the hands of the sheriff to defray the expenses of arming and equipping soldiers for the southern army.” The resolution or motion did not carry.

       Shortly after, a considerable army collected in Marion for the purpose of dislodging and driving away a company of soldiers stationed at the bridge across Big Muddy just north of Carbondale. The army marched to Carbondale where they were joined by southern sympathizers from that locality. They sent a reconnoitering party to the bridge and upon discovering the garrison and their cannon returned and persuaded the crowd that the undertaking was hazardous. While the crowd was still in Carbondale, a train for the Big Muddy bridge came through with a company of soldiers and artillery and the project of attacking the soldiers was abandoned.

       It is said that John A. Logan, Geo. W. Goddard, John H. White, and John M. Cunningham, all of Marion, entered into a secret agreement to stand by the Union. White was county clerk and Goddard was circuit clerk. It was agreed for Logan to go to the special session of congress, and after his return a regiment was to be raised. Logan was to be colonel, White was to be lieutenant colonel, Goddard captain, and Cunningham was to stay home and take care of the two clerkships. This programme was practically carried out.

       In May, 1861, Colonel Brooks and Harvey Hayes raised in Williamson county a company and made their way to Paducah, where they joined the southern army. There were probably fifty or sixty men in the company.

       The Golden Circle was in a prosperous condition in this county in the years 1862 to 1864.

“THE AMERICAN BASTILE”

       This is a history of the arrests and imprisonments of citizens of the United States during the Civil war. The book was written by John A. Marshall. In this book there are accounts of one hundred alleged illegal arrests. It should be stated that these accounts refer only to arrests of noted citizens in various parts of the United States. Twelve of these arrests were made in Illinois, and four of the twelve were made in southern Illinois. P 322

       In August, 1862, Dr. Israel Blanchard, who was riding in the streets of Carbondale, was arrested, taken to Big Muddy bridge, and thence to Cairo, where he was turned over to General Prentiss. The charges according to the history were that he had spoken disrespectfully of Lincoln, had discouraged enlistments, and attempted to raise a company to burn Big Muddy bridge. General Prentiss sent him to Springfield and from there in company with a number of similar offenders he was sent to Washington, where he lay in the Old Capitol prison for six weeks. He was eventually set free, and in 1863 was elected to the state senate by the Democratic party by a majority of  3,000.

       Judge A. D. Duff, of Franklin county, was arrested by Federal secret service men while holding circuit court in Marion, Williamson county, August 15, 1862. With him were arrested Wm. J. Allen, member of congress; John A. Clemenson, state ‘s attorney, and others. Judge Duff was taken to Washington and confined in the Old Capitol prison. He, too, was later released.

     H. W. Newland, a prominent farmer living near Benton, was arrested in August and hurried to Washington in company with eight or ten others. All these persons were required to take the oath of allegiance and promise good behavior.

       Another prominent citizen, Mr. Walter S. Hawks, of Tamaroa, Perry county, was among the unfortunates. It is generally charged by the friends of these men who were arrested that they were informed on by members of the order called the Union League.

SOUTHERN ILLINOIS IN CAMP AND IN BATTLE

       The political campaign of 1860 was a memorable one. Abraham Lincoln was elected president and Richard Yates, governor of Illinois. Governor Yates was inaugurated January 14, 1861. Lincoln was sworn in March 4th. Fort Sumter was fired on April 12th, and on Monday the 15th the president called for 75,000 troops. Mr. Lincoln knew Governor Yates and he felt he could rely upon him in this hour of trial. On the evening of the 15th of April the following telegram was sent from Washington to the governor of Illinois:

       “Washington, April 15, 1861. His Excellency Richard Yates: Call made on you by tonight‘s mail for six regiments of militia, for immediate service. SIMON CAMERON.”  

       This call for six regiments of militia presupposed the existence of an organized militia from which the six regiments might be detached. There were few well organized companies of militia in Illinois at that time. The arsenal at Springfield was empty, with the exception of less  than 500 unserviceable guns, pistols, etc. There were some guns in the hands of the militia, but none were modern or in good condition. There were some independent organizations over the state both of infantry and artillery.

       The adjutant general of Illinois issued a call for volunteers, and by April 17th, 10,000 loyal sons had responded, and had offered their services for the maintenance of the nation’s honor. On the 19th the following dispatch was received at Springfield: P 323

By courtesy of Judge John M. Lansden

GEN. GRANT AND GEN. MCCLELLAN IN CAIRO IN 1861

 P 324 Washington, April 19, 1861. Governor Yates: As soon as enough of your troops are mustered into the service, send a brigadier general, with four regiments at or near Grand Cairo.

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.”

         Governor Yates sent a telegram to General Swift at Chicago to be ready at a moment’s notice. The Illinois Central received word that the Big Muddy bridge was threatened, and the railroad company was anxious for its safety. At 11 p. m. on Sunday the 21st, General Swift with 600 men started for Cairo. The next day 400 more troops were dispatched. General Swift left Company A, Capt. J. R. Hayden commanding, at the Big Muddy bridge. There were a company of the famous Zouave regiment. The  rest of the brigade reached Cairo the night of the 22nd. Later another company, Captain Claybourne in charge, was sent to Big Muddy.

        Colonel B. M. Prentiss reached Cairo on the 24th of April. He took command. Shortly boats began moving south with munitions of war from St. Louis. These were all halted and their cargoes confiscated. As fast as regiments were raised they were hastened forward to Cairo and that city became a veritable military camp. Capt. John Pope, a West Point graduate and son of Nathaniel Pope, was busily engaged in mustering in and forwarding these troops. The colonels of the first six regiments were:

Seventh regiment, Col. John Cook, Springfield.

Eighth regiment, Col. Richard J. Oglesby, Decatur.

Ninth regiment, Col. Eleazer A. Paine, Monmouth.

Tenth regiment, Col. James D. Morgan, Quincy.

Eleventh regiment, Col. W. LI. L. Wallace, Ottawa.

Twelfth regiment, Col. John McArthur, Chicago.

       Only one of these colonels was a southern Illinois man—Col. John Cook was a son of Daniel P. Cook and grandson of Gov. Ninian Edwards. He was brought up in Edwardsville, but had, previous to 1855, settled in Springfield.

       General Grant assumed command at Cairo, September 4, 1861, and immediately began to spread his army out over Missouri, Kentucky, and southern Illinois. Troops were stationed up the river between Cairo and Thebes, at Villa Ridge, Mound City, and at Shawneetown. During the summer of 1861 the government was active in preparing a river fleet of gunboats. Mound City, in Pulaski county, became an important ship-building point.. Ordinary river steamboats were reconstructed in such a way as to present a very formidable appearance. Capt. James B. Eads was building gunboats at Carondelet, near St. Louis, and he also had in charge the shipyard at Mound City. These gunboats formed Commodore Foote‘s river fleet. Some of these vessels were the Cincinnati, the Essex, the Carondelet, the Tyler, the St. Louis, the Louisville, the Pittsburg, the Connestoga and the Lexington. These were all more or less completely armored. The method of placing the armor differed in different vessels. In addition there were scores of transports, which were ordinary river steamers equipped for carrying men and supplies. This fleet of gunboats, transports, dispatch boats, hospital boats, and other river craft served General Grant admirably in the battles of Belmont, Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, and Pittsburg Landing. P 325

 During the entire period of the war Cairo was an important place from a military point of view. Large sums of money were disbursed here and in Mound City. Wm. McHale, recently deceased, for many

By courtesy of Judge John M. Lansden

RIVER GUNBOATS AT CAIRO IN 1861

years superintendent of the wharf at Cairo, told the author that he was a ship carpenter at Cairo and at Mound City during the war and that hundreds of men were employed in repairing and remodeling the vessels of the river fleet. He pointed out an old mortar boat anchored P 326 on the wharf at Cairo, which is the only war time water craft left about Cairo.

       From what has been said in the preceding paragraphs, it will be seen that the northern part of the state was much more responsive to the call of the government for troops than was ‘Egypt.” There was considerable sympathy with southern ideals in this part of the state. Mr. Lincoln‘s vote in the thirty-five southern counties was very light. The majority of the strong politicians were Douglas Democrats or Buchanan Democrats. Neither the President nor the governor looked for much help, in the early days of the war, from Southern Illinois. And so it turned out that many thousands of the early enlistments were from the central and northern· parts of the state, while few troops came from the south end.

        The first six regiments were three months’ men, and at the expiration of their term of enlistment they reenlisted for three years or during the war. The ninety-day call was considered entirely of a temporary nature, so the numbering of the regiments began with the Seventh infantry. The enlistments in the Mexican war were numbered up to and including the Sixth regiment.

       We give below the regimental organization for all regiments that were wholly or partly from southern Illinois.

THREE YEARS’ SERVICE

       Ninth Infantry Regiment—This regiment did service at Cairo as a ninety-day enlistment, and later entered the three years’ service. The officers were as follows: Colonel, Eleazer A. Paine, Mercer county; lieutenant colonel, Augustus Mersey, Belleville; major, Jesse J. Phillips, Hillsboro; adjutant, Thos. J. Newsham, Edwardsville.

       From Cairo this regiment was sent to Paducah. Was in campaign against Forts Henry and Donelson, Nashville, Shiloh, Corinth and thereabouts, Decatur, Athens and Huntsville, At the expiration of enlistment the veterans and others were consolidated into a new organization with somewhat different officers from those given above.

       Tenth Infantry Regiment—This was the brave James D. Morgan’s regiment. It contained three companies that were almost wholly Southern Illinois men. These were Company D, Capt. Samuel T. Mason, Alton; Company I, Morton S. McAtee, Chester; and Company K, Capt. George C. Lusk, Edwardsville.

       The regiment reported at Cairo April 16, 1861, as a ninety-day enlistment. From Cairo it moved to points south and southeast—New Madrid. Corinth, Nashville. Chattanooga and the March-to-the-Sea. Grand Review at Washington.

       Eleventh Infantry Regiment—This regiment contained some Southern Illinois soldiers. Companies C, E, F and G were largely Egyptians, the captains being Geo. C. McKee, Centralia; Loyd D. Waddell. Edgewood Wm. Boren, and Lucius M. Rose, Effingham. The regiment was stationed at Villa Ridge, a few miles north of Cairo. The organization suffered severely in killed, wounded, missing in the Forts Donelson-Henry campaign. Also lost heavily at Shiloh, Corinth, Holly Springs, Moscow, Mississippi river. General Wallace, General Ramson, General Atkins were at different times regimental officers. P 327

       Twelfth Infantry Regiment—This regiment contained one Egyptian company—Company G, Capt. Guy C. Ward, DuQuoin. Nearly all this company came from Perry county.

       Eighteenth Infantry Regiment—This regiment was mustered in at Anna June 30, 1861. The officers were: Colonel, Michael K. Lawler, Equality; lieutenant colonel, Thos. H. Burgess, DuQuoin; major, Samuel Eaton, —; adjutant, Samuel T. Brush, Carbondale.

       The regiment was mustered into the United States service May 19, 1861, and moved as follows: Bird’s Point, Mound City, Cape Girardeau, Columbus, Ky., Forts Henry and Donelson, Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, Jackson, Tenn., Bolivar, Near Vicksburg. Mustered out at Little Rock. Among the men who made enviable records were Col. Lawler, Capt. D. H. Brush, Adjutant Samuel T. Brush. The aggregate enlistment was 2,043.

       Twenty-second Infantry Regiment—This regiment was organized at Belleville May, 1861. Mustered in at Caseyville, June 25, 1861. Officered as follows: Colonel, Henry Dougherty, Carlyle; lieutenant colonel, Harmon E. Hart, Alton; major, Enadies Probst, Centralia; adjutant, Robert H. Clift, Alton.

       There was a regimental band of nineteen pieces under the leadership of William Shaffer.

       The movements were—Bird's Point, Belmont, rear of Columbus, Sikeston, Tiptonville, Corinth, Stone River (every horse in the regiment was killed in battle of Stone River), Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, Knoxville, Atlanta. Mustered out at Springfield, Ill., July 7, 1864.

       Twenty-ninth Infantry Regiment—This regiment came from the counties of Gallatin, Massac, Pope, Saline, Hardin, Williamson and neighboring counties. Mustered in at Camp Butler, August 19, 1861, with officers as follows: Colonel, James S. Reardon, Shawneetown; lieutenant colonel, James E. Dunlap, Jacksonville; major, Mason Brayman, Springfield; adjutant, Aaron R. Stout, Shawneetown.

       The regiment served under General Oglesby and General MeClernand, and were the first troops to enter Fort Henry after its evacuation. Was engaged at Shiloh, Corinth, and was surrendered at Holly Springs. Later was at Vicksburg, Mobile, etc. Mustered out November 28, 1865.

       Thirtieth Infantry Regiment—This was only partly a southern Illinois regiment. Its colonel belonged to a noted Southern Illinois family. Colonel Philip B. Fouke, Belleville; lieutenant colonel, Chas. S. Dennis, Carlyle; major, Thos. McClurken; adjutant, Geo. A. Bacon, Carlyle.

       The regiment moved from Camp Butler to Cairo, Forts Henry and Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth, Vicksburg, March to the Sea, Grand Review. Mustered out, July 17, 1865.

       Thirty-first Infantry Regiment—This regiment had the distinction of having the greatest volunteer soldier the world has ever seen—Col. John A. Logan. Mustered in September 18, 1861. At Cairo, Belmont, Forts Henry and Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth, Vicksburg. At Vicksburg it was Logan’s division, including the Thirty-first that had the distinction of blowing up Fort Hill. It was Logan’s troops which marched into Vicksburg on the 4th of July, 1863, and hauled down the P 328 Confederate flag, and ran up the stars and stripes. The Thirty-first followed the fortunes of Sherman through the March to the Sea and on to the Grand Review in Washington.

       The officers were: Colonel, John A. Logan, Marion; lieutenant colonel, John H. White, Marion; major, Andrew J. Kuykendall, Vienna; adjutant, Chas. H. Capehart, Washington, D. C.

       Thirty-eighth Infantry Regiment—This regiment had three companies that were almost wholly southern Illinois men namely: H, captain, Chas. Yelton, Newton; I, captain, Charles Churchill, Albion; K, captain, William C. Harris, Newton. The regimental officers were: Colonel, Wm. P. Carlin, Carrollton; lieutenant colonel, Mortimer O‘Kean, Newton; major, Daniel H. Gilmer, Pittsfield; adjutant, Arthur Lee Bailhache, Springfield.

       Organized at Camp Butler. Thence to Pilot Knob, Corinth, Louisville, Stone River, Atlanta campaign, returned to Nashville, Franklin. Thence to Texas. Mustered out in Springfield, December 31, 1865.

       Fortieth Infantry Regiment—The Fortieth was enlisted from the counties of Franklin, Hamilton, Wayne, White, Wabash, Marion, Clay and Fayette. Mustered in at Springfield, August 10, 1861, with the following officers: Colonel, Stephen G. Hicks, Salem; lieutenant colonel, James H. Boothe, Kinmundy; major, John B. Smith, Hamilton county; adjutant, Rigdon S. Baruhill, Fairfield. The movements were from Springfield to Jefferson barracks, Paducah, Eastport, Alabama, Pittsburg Landing (Colonel Hicks was severely wounded in this battle), Corinth, Memphis, Holly Springs, in front of Vicksburg, battles of Jackson, March to the Sea, Grand Review. Mustered out at Springfield, July 24, 1865.

       Forty-third Infantry Regiment—This was only in part a Southern Illinois regiment; companies A, B, G and H being from “Egypt.” These four companies were from the region of Belleville. Organized at Camp Butler, September, 1861. Officers as follows: Colonel, Julius Raith, O‘Fallon; lieutenant colonel, Adolph Engleman, Shiloh, St. Clair county; major, Adolph Dengler, Belleville; adjutant, John Peetz, Rock Island. Camp Butler to St. Louis, Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Pittsburg Landing. Colonel Raith mortally wounded. Corinth, Bolivar, vicinity of Jackson in ‘62-3. In Arkansas till close of war. Discharged at Camp Butler, December 14, 1865.

       Forty-eighth Infantry Regiment—This organization was almost wholly from Southern Illinois. The regiment was mustered at Camp Butler, September, 1861.

Colonel, Isham N. Haynie, Cairo.

Lieutenant colonel, Thomas H. Scott, Metropolis.

Major, William W. Sanford, St. Louis.

Adjutant, William Prescott, Springfield.

       This regiment took part in the following battles, etc.—Forts Henry and Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth, Vicksburg, Black River, Jackson, Knoxville, Resaca, Mareli to Sea, Grand Review. Marched 3,000 miles, by water 5,000, by rail 3,450. Mustered out August, 1865.

       Forty-ninth Infantry Regiment—Organized at Camp Butler, December 31, 1861.

Colonel, William R. Morrison, Waterloo.

Lieutenant colonel, Phineas Peace, Centralia.

Major, William W. Bishop, Mattoon.

Adjutant, James Morrison. P 329

       The regiment reached Cairo in time to take part in the reduction of Forts Henry and Donelson; thence to Shiloh, Helena, Arkansas, Memphis, Red River, and Nashville. Mustered out September 15, 1865.

       Fifty-fourth Infantry Regiment—This regiment was altogether from Egypt. The colonel was Thomas W. Harris from Shawneetown. Mustered at Camp Dubois, Anna, February 18, 1862. In 1864, while the regiment was stationed at Mattoon the rebel sympathizers in that vicinity were very bold, and spirited conflicts occurred. A serious affair occurred in Charleston, Coles county, in which Maj. Shubal York and four privates were killed. The muster out took place at Camp Butler, October 26, 1865.

       Fifty-sixth Infantry Regiment—Massac, Pope, Gallatin, Saline, White, Hamilton, Franklin and Wayne furnished the men of this regiment. It was organized by Col. Robert Kirkham of Shawneetown, and eventually commanded by Col. Green B. Raum of Harrisburg, The adjutant was Samuel Atwell, Massac county. The regiment was organized at Camp Mather near Shawneetown, February 27, 1862. Did garrison duty at Paducah, Corinth, Holly Spring, campaigned in Mississippi, Vicksburg, assisted in blowing up Fort Hill, occupying the Crater with heavy loss. With Sherman to Atlanta. Under Howard to the sea. Grand Review.

       Sixtieth Infantry Regiment—Colonel, Silas C. Toler, Jonesboro; lieutenant colonel, William B. Anderson, Mt. Vernon; major, Samuel Hess, Vienna; adjutant, Thomas C. Baames, Anna.

       Took part in sieges and marches around Corinth, Big Springs, Nashville, Tuscumbia, Nashville, Murfreesboro, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Atlanta campaign, March to the Sea, Grand Review.

       Sixty-second Infantry Regiment—A large per cent of this regiment were Southern Illinois men. Mustered at Camp Dubois, Anna, April 10, 1862. Colonel, James M. True, Mattoon; lieutenant colonel, Daniel S. Robinson, Bloomington; major, Stephen M. Meeker, Hardinaville; adjutant, Lewis C. True, Mattoon.

       Reached Cairo June 7, 1862, moved to Columbus, Jackson, Tennessee, Holly Springs, guarded Mississippi Central railroad, captured by Van Dorn at Holly Springs and records destroyed. Later served in Tennessee and Arkansas. Discharged at Springfield, spring of 1866.

       Sixty-third Infantry Regiment—Organized at Camp Dubois, Anna,  December, 1861 and received into United States service in April, 1862. Officers were not Egyptians. Seven companies were offered by Southern Illinois men. From Anna to Cairo, Henderson, Kentucky, Jackson, Tennessee, Chattanooga, Missionary Ridge, March to the Sea, Grand Review. Mustered out in Springfield, July 16, 1865.

       Seventy-first Infantry Regiment-Quite a few Southern Illinois men enlisted in this regiment. It was a ninety-day regiment. Two companies guarded “Big Muddy Bridge.” Two companies garrisoned Mound City. The service was largely guard duty, and the regiment was mustered out in Springfield in October, 1862.

       Eightieth Infantry Regiment-This regiment was organized at Centralia and mustered into the service August 25, 1862. The regimental officers were as follows: Colonel, Thomas G. Allen, Chester; lieutenant colonel, Andrew F. Rogers, Upper Alton; major, Erastus N. Bates, Centralia; adjutant, James C. Jones.

       Moved to Louisville, Kentucky, was under General Buell, pursued P 330 General Bragg, battle of Perryville October 8, ‘62; campaigned in vicinity of Louisville and Nashville, surrendered to General Forrest May 3, ‘63, officers sent to Libby prison. After exchanged fought in battles from Chattanooga to Atlanta. Mustered out January 10th, 1865.

       Eighty-first Infantry Regiment—This was a Southern Illinois regiment. Organized at Anna, August 26, 1862. Mustered out August 5, 1865. Officers: Colonel, James J. Dollins, Benton; lieutenant colonel, Franklin Campbell, DuQuoin; major, Andrew W. Rogers, Carbondale; adjutant, Zebedee Hammock, Tamaroa.

       Moved to Cairo, Humboldt, Tennessee, Memphis, Vicksburg campaign. Furnished some men who ran the batteries of Vicksburg. Red River and return. Lost in dead, wounded, and prisoners 153 men in Guntown engagement. Mobile in spring of ‘65. Of 1,144 enlisted men 54 killed, 287 died of disease, 274 resigned and discharged, 529 mustered out.

        Eighty-seventh Infantry Regiment—Recruited from Wayne, White, Wabash, Edwards and Gallatin, and nearby counties. Organized at Shawneetown October 3, 1862, and mustered out June 24, 1865, in Springfield. Garrison duty at Memphis, here lost and disabled 250 men from measles. Battle of Warrenton, Siege of Vicksburg, Red River expedition. Helena, Arkansas, thence to Camp Butler.

       Ninety-seventh Infantry Regiment—This regiment contained quite a sprinkle of Southern Illinois men. The colonel was Friend S. Rutherford, Alton; Capt. James Q. Buchanan was from Cumberland county, Company G; Capt. John T4ble was recruited about Alton.

       Ninety-eighth Infantry Regiment—Effingham, Clay, Jasper, Richland and nearby counties/furnished the soldiers of the Ninety-eighth. Colonel, John J. Funkhauser, Jasper; lieutenant colonel, Edward Kitchell, Olney; major, William B. Cooper, Effingham; adjutant, John H. J. Lacey, Effingham.

       Mustered at Centralia, September 3, 1862. Bowling Green, Kentucky, Glasgow, Nashville. Raided in Georgia. Returned to Nashville, East Tennessee, Chickamauga and Big Shanty. Campaigned about Nashville and in northern Alabama.

       One Hundred Ninth Infantry Regiment—The One Hundred Ninth was almost entirely recruited from Union county, except Company K, which came from Pulaski county. Colonel, Alexander J. Nimms; lieutenant colonel, Elijah A. Willard; major, Thomas M. Perrine; adjutant, James Evans.

        Mustered at Anna, September 11, 1862. Moved to Cairo, Columbus, Bolivar, Moscow, Holly Springs, Lumpkins Mill, Lake Providence. It was armed with inferior guns, and later was consolidated with the Eleventh Infantry. No record of important engagements. There were 159 desertions, only one occurring in Company K.

        One Hundred Tenth Infantry Regiment—Jefferson, Washington, Wayne, Hamilton, Saline, Franklin, Perry and Williamson furnished the soldiers for this regiment. Mustered at Anna, September 11, 1862. Officers as follows: Colonel, Thomas S. Casey, Mt. Vernon; lieutenant colonel, Monroe C. Crawford, Jonesboro; major, Daniel Mooneyham, Benton; adjutant, Oscar A. Taylor, New York city.

        Louisville, Perryville (not engaged), Central Kentucky, Stone River, Woodbury. Consolidated May ‘63. Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Atlanta, March to Sea, Grand Review. Mustered out June 15, 1865. P 331

       One Hundred Eleventh Infantry Regiment—This was a real Southern Illinois regiment. Six companies were enlisted from Marion county, one from Clay, one in Washington, one from Clinton, and one from Wayne and Marion. Organized at Saline, September 18, 1862, at Camp Marshall. Colonel, James S. Martin, Saline; lieutenant colonel, Joseph F. Black, Saline; major, William H. Mabry, Xenia; adjutant, William C. Styles, Centralia.

       From Camp Marshall to Cairo, Columbus, Kentucky, Fort Heiman, up the Tennessee, Atlanta campaign, engaged in watching Hood, Grand Review. Engaged in 8 battles, 17 skirmishes. Killed in battle 46, wounded 144, died in prison 11, died in hospital 93, discharged for disability 71. Marched 1,836 miles, by steamer 650, by rail 1,250.

       One Hundred Seventeenth Infantry Regiment—Colonel, Risdon M. Moore, Lebanon; lieutenant colonel, Johnathan Merriam, Tazewell; Thomas J. Newsham, Edwardsville.; adjutant, Samuel county; major, H. Deneen, Lebanon.

       All the companies except A and B were Southern Illinois boys. Organized at Camp Butler, September, 1862. To Memphis, Red River expedition, eastern Missouri, Nashville, campaigned around the gulf. Mustered out August S. 1865.

       One Hundred Twentieth Infantry Regiment—Colonel, George W. McKeaig, Shawneetown; lieutenant colonel, John G. Hardy, Vienna; major, Spencer B. Floyd, Pope county; adjutant, Buford Wilson, Shawneetown.

       Organized at Camp Butler, mustered October 28, 1862. Moved to Alton, St. Louis, Memphis, garrison duty at Fort Pickering where men had measles, small pox, and pneumonia. Hopesdale, Arkansas, siege of Vicksburg, garrison duty along the Mississippi. Mustered out September 10, 1865.

       One Hundred Twenty-eighth Infantry Regiment—This regiment mustered into service December 18, 1862, and disbanded April 4, 1863. The officers were: Colonel, Robert M. Hundley, Marion; lieutenant colonel, James D. Pulley, Marion; major, James D. McCown, Marion; adjutant, William A. Lemma, Marion.

ORDERS FROM WAR DEPARTMENT

“Cairo, Illinois, April 1, 1863.

       “Special order: The One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Regiment of Volunteers, having in its short period of service of less than five months, been reduced from an aggregate of eight hundred and sixty to one hundred and sixty-one—principally by desertion—and there having been an utter want of discipline in it, the following officers are hereby discharged from the service of the United States, to take effect the 4th inst., etc., etc.

“By order of the secretary of war.

“Official: E. D. TOWNSEND, assistant adjutant general.

L. THOMAS, adjutant general.”

       The officers were nearly if not quite all discharged and the privates were attached to the Ninth Illinois Infantry.

       One Hundred Thirty-first Infantry Regiment—This also was an Egyptian regiment. It was organized on the grounds of old Fort Massac, P 332 near Metropolis in September, 1862. The measles broke out before the regiment left Fort Massac and through death and disability it lost over a hundred men. Moved to Cairo, thence to Memphis, Milliken‘s Bend, Haine‘s Bluff, Arkansas Post, returned to Memphis, siege of Vicksburg, Paducah, campaigned in Kentucky, consolidated with the Twenty-ninth. Officers: Colonel, George W. Neely, Metropolis; lieutenant colonel, Richard A. Peter, Metropolis; major, Joseph L. Purvis, Metropolis; adjutant, LaFayette Twitchell.

ONE HUNDRED DAYS’ SERVICE

       One Hundred Thirty-sixth Infantry Regiment—There were thirteen regiments of Illinois troops organized for the one hundred days’ service. They were all enlisted in the spring and summer of 1864. The plan was to have this branch of the service do guard duty, mainly. In this way the seasoned veterans could give their time to the more serious military operations. The One Hundred Thirty-sixth regiment was officered as follows: Colonel, Frederick A. Johns, Olney; lieutenant colonel, William T. Ingram, Benton; major, Henry A. Organ, Fairfield; adjutant, Elias J. Bryan, Ashley.

       Mustered at Centralia June 1, 1864. Moved to Columbus, Kentucky, thence to Paducah, Mayfield, Columbus. Reenlisted for fifteen days and mustered out October 22, 1864.

       One Hundred Forty-third Infantry Regiment—Dudley C. Smith of Shelbyville was colonel. Companies B, E, I and K were Southern Illinois men. Served from June 16th to September 10, 1864. This regiment did excellent service about Memphis and Helena, Arkansas.

       One Hundred Forty-fourth Infantry Regiment—This regiment was recruited from the localities of Shelbyville, Alton, and neighboring localities. Organized at Alton October 21, 1864. Mustered out July 14, 1865. No record to be found.

       One Hundred Forty-fifth Infantry Regiment—Company A, Capt Tamerlane Chapman, Vienna, and Company F, Capt. Finis Evans, Makanda, were Egyptian boys. Quite a number of Southern Illinois enlistments in other companies.

THE ALTON BATTALION

       This battalion of two companies was recruited about Alton in June, 1864. It served till October, 1864.

ONE YEAR SERVICE

       One Hundred Forty-ninth Infantry Regiment—Only partly a Southern Illinois organization. Organized at Camp Butler, February, 1865, and mustered out January, 1866. Colonel, Wm. C. Kneffner, Collins’ Station; lieutenant colonel. Alexander G. Hawes. Belleville; major, Moses M. Warner, Jacksonville; adjutant, Winfield S. Noreross, Carlyle.

       The regiment did garrison duty about Chattanooga and Atlanta.

       One Hundred Fiftieth Infantry Regiment—Colonel, Geo. W. Keener, Oldtown; lieutenant colonel, Charles F. Springer. Edwardsville; major, Wm. R. Prickett, Edwardsville; adjutant, P 333 Chancey H. Shelton, Chebanse. Organized February, 1865. Mustered out January, 1866. Did garrison duty in the region of Chattanooga, Bridgeport, Cleveland, Dalton and Atlanta.

CAVALRY SERVICE

       First Cavalry Regiment—Companies B, H and I were Egyptians. Company B, captain, James Foster, Equality; Company H, captain, Robt. D. Noleman, Centralia; Company I, captain, Orlando Burrell, Alton. This regiment was mustered in at Alton July 3, 1861. Regiment was captured at Lexington, Mo., and after much unpleasant relationship among officers and men the regiment was abandoned and men enlisted elsewhere.

       Second Cavalry Regiment—Two companies, D and E, of this regiment were southern Illinois troops. Company D, Captain Franklin B. Moore, Upper Alton; Company E, captain, Samuel P. Tipton, Summerfield.

       The regiment was mustered August 20, 1861, at Camp Butler.

       Moved first to DuQuoin, Carbondale, and Fort Massac. Scouted in Missouri after Colonel Jeff Thompson. Took part in all the campaigns up to and including the siege of Vicksburg. Operated on the lower Mississippi. Mustered out January 3, 1866.

       Third Cavalry Regiment—Company D, captain, Thomas M. Davis, Bond county, and Company B, captain, John L. Campbell, Saline county, were the only southern Illinois troops in this regiment. From Camp Butler to Jefferson City, Springfield, Pea Ridge, Helena, White River, Grenada, and Haines Bluff. Siege of Vicksburg.

       Fifth Cavalry Regiment—Benjamin L. Wiley, of Makanda, Jackson county, was lieutenant colonel of this regiment. Companies A, D, F, H, K and M were Southern Illinois troops. Did valiant service on the Mississippi river south of Memphis. Mustered in November, 1861, and discharged October 27, 1865.

       Sixth Cavalry Regiment—This is the regiment that made the famous raid through Mississippi and Louisiana in April, 1863, usually known as Grierson‘s Raid. It started from La Grange and ended at Baton Rouge. It was a seventeen-days’ ride, the distance traveled being 800 miles. Company A, captain, Geo. W. Peck, Metropolis; Company B, captain, James B. Morry, Johnson county; Company D, captain, Hosca Vice, McLeansboro; Company E, captain, Isaac Gibson, Olney; Company F, captain, Cressa K. Davis, Harrisburg; company G, captain, John M. Boicourt, Golconda; Company H, captain, John J. Ritchey, McLeansboro; Company I, captain, Reuben Loomis, DuQuoin; Company K, captain, Edward Dawes, Rectorville; Company M, captain, Isaiah M. Sperry, South Pass.

        The colonel was Benjamin H. Grierson. He lived at Jacksonville in 1861, but later resided west of that city. He died recently an honored citizen of a great state.

        Seventh Cavalry Regiment—Three companies, F, G, and M, were chiefly Southern Illinois men. Company F, captain, Antrim P. Kockler, Otego; Company G, captain, Geo. W. Trafton, New Haven; Company C, captain, John P. Ludwig, Red Bud.

       The regiment was with General Grierson on his famous raid. P 334

       Thirteenth Cavalry Regiment—This regiment was officered by men from around Chicago. It was consolidated by order of war department in May, 1863. In the new organization there were the following companies from Egypt: Company D, captain, Gurusey W. Davis, DeSoto; Company E, captain, David Slinger, Carmi; Company F, captain, Andrew J. Alden, Tamaroa; Company G, captain, George M. Alden, Ashley; Company H, captain, Samuel A. Hoyne, Lovilla; Company I captain Edward Brown, Carbondale; Company K, captain, Henry W. Smith, Benton; Company L, captain, Geo. W. Sewsberry, Georgetown.

       After the consolidation the regiment did service in the region of Little Rock and southeastern Missouri. Mustered out August 31, 1865.

       Fourteenth Cavalry Regiment-This regiment was recruited from different parts of the state. The lieutenant colonel was David P. Jenkins, Vandalia, and the major was Francis M. Davidson, Anna. Company E, captain, Benj. Crandall, Shawneetown; Company F, captain, Thomas K. Jenkins, Vandalia; Company G, captain, Wm. Perkins, Vienna.

       Did service in vicinity of railroad from Louisville to Nashville. Captured the famous rebel raider, General Morgan. Annihilated Thomas’ Legion in North Carolina. In Atlanta campaign. Guarded Hood’s movements. Mustered out July, 1865.

       Fifteenth Cavalry Regiment-Colonel, Warren Stewart, Alexander county; lieutenant colonel, Geo. A. Bacon, Carlyle; Company B, captain, Egleton Carmichael, Metropolis; Company C, captain, James Dollins, Benton; Company E, captain, Wm. D. Hutchens, Centralia; Company F, captain, Joseph Adams, Benton.

       The regiment moved from Cairo in the spring of ‘62 and took part in Forts Henry and Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth. Scouted in Mississippi, Alabama, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Mustered out August 25, 1864.

SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR

       When the Spanish-American war began in 1898, the President on April 25, called for 125,000 volunteers. Illinois’ quota was eight regiments—seven of infantry and one of cavalry. A second call was issued May 25th, for an additional 75,000 men. Illinois was to have two additional regiments. This would give the state nine regiments. Eight of these were made up of the militiamen enrolled at that time. The regiments were numbered from one to nine. The Eighth regiment was a colored regiment and the Ninth was a “Provisional Regiment.”

       The Fourth Illinois Infantry—This regiment was made up of enlistments from Champaign, Coles, Douglas, Edgar, Effingham, Fayette, Jackson, Jefferson, Montgomery, Richland, and St. Clair. The regimental organization was not very stable but at the beginning it was as follows: Colonel, Casimir Andel of Belleville. He was tried on charges of violating the 21st, 61st, 62d Articles of War. Found guilty of violating 62d article. He resigned. He was succeeded by Colonel Eben Swift of the regular army. Lieutenant colonel. Stephen A. D. McWilliams of Springfield; major, Louis E. Bennett of Greenville, was tried on charge of violating the 62d Article of War. Found guilty. P 335 Adjutant, Harry S. Parker, Effingham; Company A, captain, Joseph P. Barricklow, Arcola; Company B, Wm. A. Howell, Newton; Company C, captain, Eugene Barton, Carbondale; Company D, captain, Ferd J. Schrader, Belleville; Company E, captain, Chas. E. Rudy, Mattoon; Company F, captain, Neil P. Pavey, Mt. Vernon;. Company G, captain, Claude E. Ryman, Effingham; Company H, William H. Hanker, Paris; Company I, captain, Samuel S. Houston, Vandalia; Company K, captain, Geo. L. Zink, Litchfield; Company L, captain, Franz Meunch, Olney; Company M, captain, Wm. R. Courtney, Urbana.

       This regiment was mustered in at Springfield. From there to Jacksonville, Florida. Here the camp was called “Camp quba Libre.” From here to Camp Onward, near Savannah, The regiment went to Havana, January, 1899, and entered Camp Columbia. In  April returned to Augusta, Ga. Mustered out in May, 1899.

EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY

       This was the colored regiment, Colonel John R. Marshall, of Chicago, was in command. Southern Illinois furnished three companies; one from Mound City, one from Metropolis, and one from Golconda. This regiment rendered valuable service at Santiago.

NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY

       This regiment was enlisted from the counties in the eastern part of Southern Illinois. Colonel James R. Campbell of McLeansboro headed the regiment. The regiment went to Jacksonville, thence to Savannah, and thence to Havana where it remained till May, 1899. This was the provisional regiment—that is the troops were not previously member of the militia.

       It has been the aim in the foregoing paragraphs to mention those organizations—regimental or company—which were largely or wholly from the southern end of the state. It should be borne in mind that hundreds and thousands of men from Southern Illinois were enrolled in organizations credited to other parts of the state and even to other states. As has been previously remarked, the southern counties were sympathetic with the secessionists at first, but as the war progressed their patriotism revived and no other section of the state furnished braver or better soldiers than Egypt.

 

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